English Synthesis and Transformation is not consistently taught and tested in Primary 4 classes and examinations. However, a number of schools do test this component in their Primary 4 English SA2. During the PSLE Intensive marking days, my P4s and P5s were hard at work preparing for their upcoming SA2. With most of them having completed their Writing and Oral components, our focus was on the Paper 2 components.
I took the time to emphasize on a few Synthesis and Transformation rules that commonly appear in the Primary 4 c. Most schools test just one to 5 synthesis and transformation questions and at just 1 mark each question.
This will change in Primary 5 where Synthesis and Transformation is a whopping 10 marks. To top, it off any slight mistake can mean no mark is given to the question. It is ridiculously easy to lose marks fast in this section of the paper.
Here are 4 common Synthesis and Transformation questions that can be found in the Primary English SA2 papers.
Both..and is a correlative conjunction. They come in pairs and must be used in different parts of a sentence.
*WATCH OUT for the subject-verb-agreement here. Both..and refers to two subjects now and thus the plural form of the verb must always be used.
(2) Either..or/ Neither..nor
These two are also correlative conjunctions and must also be used in pairs and in different parts of a sentence.
*WATCH OUT for the subject-verb-agreement here. The verb conjunction depends on the subject closest to the verb or to the blank. In this case, ‘students’ is plural, hence we put ‘were.’ This rule also applies to either..or
This is another correlative conjunction.
(4) Reported Speech
Reported speech is reporting to someone what has been said. When changing from Direct Speect to Reported Speech or from Reported Speech to Direct Speech, you need to watch out for:
We change present tense to past tense and past tense to present perfect tense.
*WATCH OUT. If what is being said is a fact, then we do not change the tense.
|must =>||had to|
Pronouns refer to words like “she”, “I”, “us” and “them”. In reported speech we need to change the pronoun accordingly. Remember to change ‘we’ to ‘they’ and ‘us’ to ‘them’.
We will also need to change time in Reported Speech.
|tomorrow =>||next day/following day|
|yesterday =>||the previous day|
|today =>||that day|
4.4 Change in place
The place in reported speech also needs to be changed
I hope that you found these few Synthesis and Transformation rules helpful.
Check the other articles from this section
- P4 English Grammar – Prepositions of Time
- Tips to help your child improve sentence structures & tenses at home
- SA2 English Revision: 4 steps to tackle Grammar Cloze for Primary 4
- How to use Unless in Synthesis & Transformation
- Primary 4 English: Cloze Passage
- Primary 4 English Vocabulary List
- P4 Vocabulary List SA1 papers – 2017
- Primary 4 SA1 Vocabulary List 2016
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